Sebaceous lipids (sebum) play an important role in maintaining physiological functions by forming a biological barrier in the skin (Fig. 1). The decrease of sebum levels in the skin is thought to depress the barrier functions, and thereafter may be associated with the development of dry skin (xerosis) with a variety of complaints including a rough or scaly skin surface, and pruritus (Fig. 1). Therefore, a novel aspect to control sebaceous lipogenesis might be beneficial for the prevention of dry skin and sequential itching. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an ethanol extract of Grifola frondosa (Maitake) fruit body (GripinⓇ (Fig. 2) on sebum production in hamsters and humans and compared these effects with those of an ethanol extract of Agaricus blazei murrill (Agaricus) in vivo and in vitro.