Xerosis is defined as dehydration of stratum corneum and characterized by scales, fissures, erosions, and callus in the skin which impairs the skin barrier function. Xerosis is considered to be caused by aging and various environmental factors and is also a common symptom that occurs in chronic skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis. Since patients with xerosis exhibit symptoms, including a scaly and rough skin surface and uncomfortable feeling of itching or pain, effective candidate(s) to structurally and functionally improve the impaired skin barrier may be of benefit to these patients. We have found novel evidence that Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom) extract (Gripin®) facilitates the biosynthesis of sebum, which plays an important role in maintaining the skin barrier, in hamsters and humans in vivo and in vitro (POSTER No. 113). In the present study, to clarify whether or not GripinTM may be effective for xerosis, we performed a clinical trial investigation of 0.2% Gripin® cream (舞潤®, MaiJun) (Fig. 1) in the antebrachial and crural of patients with mild to severe xerosis.